Concordancing is the task of getting an aligned list of keywords in context. Here’s a very basic example, using Industrial Society and Its Future as a corpus:

 >>> tech = corpus.concordance({W: r'techn*'})
 >>> tech.format(n=10, columns=[L, M, R])

0    The continued development of  technology     will worsen the situation
1  vernments but the economic and  technological  basis of the present society
2     They want to make him study  technical      subjects become an executive o
3   program to acquire some petty  technical      skill then come to work on tim
4  rom nature are consequences of  technological  progress
5  n them and modern agricultural  technology     has made it possible for the e
6                      -LRB- Also  technology     exacerbates the effects of cro
7   changes very rapidly owing to  technological  change
8   they enthusiastically support  technological  progress and economic growth
9  e rapid drastic changes in the  technology     and the economy of a society w

Generating a concordance

When using corpkit, any interrogation is also optionally a concordance. If you use the do_concordancing keyword argument, your interrogation will have a concordance attribute containing concordance lines. Like interrogation results, concordances are stored as Pandas DataFrames. maxconc controls the number of lines produced.

>>> withconc = corp.interrogate({L: ['man', 'woman', 'person']},
...                             show=[W,P],
...                             do_concordancing=True,
...                             maxconc=500)

0   T Asian/JJ a/DT disabled/JJ  person/nn    or/cc a/dt woman/nn origin
1   led/JJ person/NN or/CC a/DT  woman/nn     originally/rb had/vbd no/d
2    woman/NN or/CC disabled/JJ  person/nn    but/cc a/dt minority/nn of
3   n/JJ immigrant/JJ abused/JJ  woman/nn     or/cc disabled/jj person/n
4   ing/VBG weak/JJ -LRB-/-LRB-  women/nns    -rrb-/-rrb- defeated/vbn -

If you like, you can use only_format_match=True to keep the left and right context simple:

>>> withconc = corp.interrogate({L: ['man', 'woman', 'person']},
...                             show=[W,P],
...                             only_format_match=True,
...                             do_concordancing=True,
...                             maxconc=500)

0   African an Asian a disabled  person/nn    or a woman originally had
1   sian a disabled person or a  woman/nn     originally had no derogato
2   nt abused woman or disabled  person/nn    but a minority of activist
3   ller Asian immigrant abused  woman/nn     or disabled person but a m
4   n image of being weak -LRB-  women/nns    -rrb- defeated -lrb- ameri

If you don’t want or need the interrogation data, you can use the concordance() method:

>>> conc = corpus.concordance(T, r'/JJ.?/ > (NP <<# /man/)')

Displaying concordance lines

How concordance lines will be displayed really depends on your interpreter and environment. For the most part, though, you’ll want to use the format() method.

>>> lines.format(kind='s',
...              n=100,
...              window=50,
...              columns=[L, M, R])

kind='c'/'l'/'s' allows you to print as CSV, LaTeX, or simple string. n controls the number of results shown. window controls how much context to show in the left and right columns. columns accepts a list of column names to show.

Pandas’ set_option can be used to customise some visualisation defaults.

Working with concordance lines

You can edit concordance lines using the edit() method. You can use this method to keep or remove entries or subcorpora matching regular expressions or lists. Keep in mind that because concordance lines are DataFrames, you can use Pandas’ dedicated methods for working with text data.

### get just uk variants of words with variant spellings
>>> from corpkit.dictionaries import usa_convert
>>> concs = result.concordance.edit(just_entries=usa_convert.keys())

Concordance objects can be saved just like any other corpkit object:


You can also easily turn them into CSV data, or into LaTeX:

### pandas methods
>>> concs.to_csv()
>>> concs.to_latex()

### corpkit method: csv and latex
>>> concs.format('c', window=20, n=10)
>>> concs.format('l', window=20, n=10)

The calculate method

You might have begun to notice that interrogating and concordancing aren’t really very different tasks. If we drop the left and right context, and move the data around, we have all the data we get from an interrogation.

For this reason, you can use the calculate() method to generate an corpus.interrogation.Interrogation object containing a frequency count of the middle column of the concordance as the results attribute.

Therefore, one method for ensuring accuracy is to:

  1. Run an interrogation, using do_concordance=True
  2. Remove false positives from the concordance result using edit()
  3. Use the calculate() method to regenerate the overall frequencies
  4. Edit, visualise or export the data

If you’d like to randomise the order of your results, you can use lines.shuffle()